He was prominent as a publicist in the reforming age of the 19th century, and remains of lasting interest as a logician and an ethical theorist. He was educated exclusively by his father, who was a strict disciplinarian. He had also read a great deal of history in English. At the age of eight he started Latin, the geometry of Euclidand algebra and to teach the younger children of the family.
His main reading was still history, but he went through all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities and, by the age of 10 could read Plato and the Athenian statesman Demosthenes with ease. "John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating" the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied the work of the Scottish political economist and philosopher Adam Smith and that of the English economist David Ricardo.
While the training the younger Mill received has aroused amazement and criticismits most important aspect was the close association it fostered with the strenuous character and vigorous intellect of his father. But he did not receive the impress passively and mechanically. The duty of collecting and weighing evidence for himself was at every turn impressed upon the boy. His childhood was not unhappy, but it was a strain on his constitution and he suffered from the lack of natural, unforced development.
Copious extracts from a diary kept at this time show how methodically he read and wrote, studied chemistry and botany, tackled advanced mathematical problems, and made notes on the scenery and the people and customs of the country.
He also gained a thorough acquaintance with the French language. On his return in he added to his work the study of psychology and of Roman lawwhich he read with John Austinhis father having half decided on the bar as the best profession open to him. After a short probation he was promoted in to assistant examiner. In Mill had read P.
Soon after, in —23, Mill established among a few friends the Utilitarian Society, taking the word, as he tells us, from Annals of the Parisha novel of Scottish country life by John Galt. One of his efforts was a solid argument for freedom of discussion in a series of letters to the Chronicle on the prosecution of Richard Carlilea 19th-century English radical and freethinker.
Mill seized every chance for exposing departures from sound principle in Parliament and courts of justice. Another outlet was opened up for him April with the founding of the Westminster Reviewwhich was the organ of the philosophical radicals.
John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating younger Mill now felt himself forced to abandon these doctrines. Too much in awe of his father to make him a confidant, he wrestled with his doubts in gloomy solitude. He emerged from the struggle with a more catholic view of human happinessa delight in poetry for its own sake, a more placable attitude in controversy, a hatred of sectarianism, and an ambition no less noble and disinterested but moderated to practical possibilities.
Gradually, the debates in the Debating Society attracted men with whom contact was invigorating and inspiring. Mill ceased to attend the society inbut he carried away from it the conviction that a true system of political philosophy was. It was amalgamated with The Westminster as The London and Westminster Review inand Mill continued as editor latterly as proprietor, also until In and after he published several important articles in The Edinburgh Review.
During these years Mill also wrote his great systematic works on logic and on political economy. His reawakened enthusiasm for humanity had taken shape as an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of proof for conclusions in moral and social science; the French positivist philosopher Auguste Comte had some influence here, but the main inspiration undoubtedly came from the English scientist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newtonwhose physics had already been accepted as a model of scientific exposition by such earlier British philosophers as John LockeDavid HumeJeremy Bentham, and James Mill.
But he was determined that the new logic should not simply oppose the old logic. John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating
A System of Logicin two volumes, was published in 3rd—8th ed. Book VI is his valiant attempt to formulate a logic of the human sciences—including history, psychology, and sociology—based on causal explanation conceived in Humean terms, a formulation that John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating lately come in for radical criticism.
Mill distinguished three stages in his development as a political economist. In he published the Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economywhich he had written several years earlier, and four out of five of these essays are solutions of perplexing technical problems—the distribution of the gains of international John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, and the precise relations between profits and wages.
Here for the most part Mill appears as the disciple of David Ricardostriving after more precise statements and reaching forward to further consequences. In his second stage, originality and independence become more conspicuous as he struggles toward the standpoint from which he wrote his Principles of Political Economy. This was published in 2 vol. Thereafter, he made a more thorough study of Socialist writers. He was convinced that the social question was as important as the political question.
He declined to accept propertydevised originally to secure peace in a primitive society, as necessarily sacred in its existing developments in a quite different stage of society.
He separated questions of production and distribution and could not rest satisfied with the distribution that condemned the labouring classes to a cramped and wretched existence, in many cases to starvation.
He did not come to a Socialist solution, but he had the great merit of having considered afresh the foundations of society. This he called his third stage as a political economist, and he says that he was helped toward it by Mrs.
Taylor Harriet Hardywho became his wife in During the seven years of his marriage Mill became increasingly absorbed in the work of the British East India Company and in consequence published less than at any other period of his life. Mill sought relief by publishing a series of books on ethics and politics that he had meditated upon and partly written in collaboration with his wife. The essay On Liberty appeared in with a touching dedication to her and the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform in the same year.
In his Considerations on Representative Government he systematized opinions already put forward in many casual articles and essays.
It has been remarked how Mill combined enthusiasm for democratic government with pessimism as to what democracy was likely to do; practically every discussion in these books exemplifies this.
Mill also began to write again on the wider philosophical questions that had occupied him in the Logic. It was because he regarded the writings and sayings of Sir William Hamilton as the great fortress of intuitional philosophy in Great Britain that Mill undertook to counter his pretensions.
The doctrine he commended as he had frequently done previously because he regarded it as a natural development of the outlook of George Berkeley and Hume; the religion he attacked because he saw in it merely another attempt to foist a priestly hierarchy upon suffering humanity.
While engaged in these years mainly with theoretical studies, Mill did not remit his interest in current politics. He supported the North in the U. Civil War, using all his strength to explain that the real issue at stake in the struggle was the abolition of slavery.
In he stood as parliamentary candidate for Westminster, on conditions strictly in accordance with his principles. He would not canvass pay agents to canvass for him, nor would he engage to attend to the local business of the constituency. He was with difficulty persuaded even to address a meeting of the electors but was elected.
He took an active part in the debates preceding the passage of the Reform Billand helped to extort from the government several useful modifications of the bill, for the prevention of corrupt practices. The reform of land tenure in Ireland see his England "John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating" Ireland, and his Chapters and Speeches on the Irish Land Question, the representation of women see belowthe reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, and the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris —concerning the carriage of property at sea during the Crimean War—were among the topics on which he spoke.
As a speaker Mill was "John stuart mill beliefs yahoo dating" hesitating, but he showed great readiness in extemporaneous debate. Elected rector of St. Eyre in Jamaica were perhaps the main causes of his defeat in the general parliamentary election of His villa was filled with books and newspapers; the country round it furnished him with a variety of walks; he read, wrote, discussed, walked, botanized.
He was extremely fond of music and was himself a fair pianist. Mill was an enthusiastic botanist all his life and a frequent contributor of notes and short papers to the Phytologist. During his last journey to Avignon he was looking forward to seeing the spring flowers and completing a flora of the locality.
Mill did not relax his laborious habits or his ardent outlook on human affairs.