Castration also known as gonadectomy is any action, surgicalchemicalor otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy excision of both testesand chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes.
Castration causes sterilization preventing the castrated person or animal from reproducing ; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormonessuch as testosterone. Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering. The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as "Castrated man dating" oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying.
Estrogen levels drop precipitously following oophorectomy, and long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body. The term "castration" may also be sometimes used to refer to emasculation where both the testicles and the penis are removed together. In some cultures, and in some translations, no distinction is made between the two.
This can cause confusion. Castration of non-human animals is intended to favor a desired development of the animal or of Castrated man dating habits, as an anaphrodisiac or to prevent overpopulation.
As above, see neutering for more information on castration of non-human animals.
Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. After battles in some cases, winners castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men — eunuchs — were often admitted to special social classes and were used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households: Castration also figured in a number of religious castration cults.
Other religions, such as Judaismwere strongly opposed to the practice. The Leviticus Holiness codefor example, specifically excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from sacrifice. Eunuchs in China had been known to usurp power in many eras of Chinese historymost notably in the Later Hanlate Tang and late Ming dynasties.
There are similar recorded Middle Eastern events. In ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the Byzantine Empirewas seen as the same as a death sentence.
Removal of only the testicles had Castrated man dating less risk. Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer.
Castration has also been used in the United States for sex offenders. Trans women often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people.
Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment Castrated man datingeither before or during other procedures. It may also be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery. Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women.
Edward Gibbon 's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire reports castration of defeated foes at the hands of the Normans during their invasions of Sicily and Italy. In the medieval kingdom of Georgiathe pretender Demna was castrated by his uncle George III of Georgia to ensure the supremacy of George's branch of the family. Bishop Wimunda 12th-century English adventurer and invader of the Scottish coast, was castrated.
In medieval England those found guilty of high treason were hanged, drawn and quarteredwhich often included emasculation or removal of the genitalia. In ancient Greek mythology"Castrated man dating" castrated his father, Uranusafter the latter imprisoned the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires.
William Wallacethe Scottish resistance leader, Castrated man dating castrated as part of his execution, for resistance to English rule. Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration  in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were allegedly "punished" by castration in the s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests.
However, the Deetman Commission had rejected it as the person who reported the incident admitted it was speculative.
Voluntary castration for homosexuality was also state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, and there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures.
Chemical castration has been and is used as part of Castrated man dating in criminal cases. InAlan Turing —the father of computer science and the inventor of the Turing machine —was criminally prosecuted for homosexual acts and chose chemical castration as an alternative to a period of imprisonment. According to legend, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun and Yu in China, in BCE castration was passed into law as a punishment, which remained so until the reign of Gaozu of Tang — CE.